On 16 April 2013, about 17:37, an A321-200 Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 , as a scheduled international passenger flight, which took off from Harbin Taiping International Airport, China for Incheon International Airport, the Republic of Korea, experienced a tail strike while touching down on runway 16 at Incheon International Airport.
As a result of this accident, three flight attendants were injured, and the airplane sustained substantial damage to the pressure bulkhead and stringers, and scratches at the exterior skin of the rear fuselage.
About 17:36:30, the PM of Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 called out “five hundred” when the airplane was at 143.1 kt at an altitude of 500 ft AGL, and the PF replied, “stabilized.”
Subsequently, when an electronic voice announced “400 ft AGL” and later “300 ft AGL,” the PF and the PM replied.
About 17:36:47, the PM of Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 called out “one hundred above” and “minimum” when the airplane was approaching 300 ft and 200 ft, respectively. When an electronic voice announced “two hundred” about 17:36:56, the airplane was at 135 kt, and the PF stated, “continue, in sight.” About 2 seconds later, the PM stated, “runway in sight.”
When an electronic voice announced “one hundred” about 17:37:04, the Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 was at 137.6 kt, and the PF stated, “Mmm, this is CAT-Ⅲ.”
About 17:37:07, the airplane was at 131.4 kt at an altitude of 59 ft AGL (near the runway threshold), and about 17:37:09, at 129 kt at an altitude of 29 ft AGL (flare point) at a pitch angle of 3.2°
About 17:37:11, Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 bounced when it touched down at a lower angle (2.276°) than standard 3°, about 155.3 meters from runway 16 threshold, and at this time, the airplane was at 135.9 kt at a pitch angle of 6.7° at an angle of attack of 15.5°, with vertical gravity of 1.965 g and an increase of thrust.
About 5 seconds after touchdown and bouncing, Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 touched down again about 491.3 meters from runway 16 threshold, making a sound of crash against the ground.
At this time, the airplane was at 136.9 kt at a pitch angle of 10.9° at an attack angle of 23.2° with vertical gravity of 1.715 g and a higher thrust than that at initial touchdown.
Then, Asiana Airlines flight OZ340 completed the landing roll and taxied to ramp 129 for itself.
The Aviation and Railway Accident Investigation Board (ARAIB) determines that the causes of this accident were:
- The pilot flying (PF) failed to maintain the proper approach speed until the flare just before touchdown, and the airplane bounced on touchdown since higher-than-normal vertical gravity was applied due to a high sink rate and increased thrust and speed just before touchdown; and
- The airplane made a second touchdown at the pitch attitude exceeding an A321 airplane’s limitation and sustained a tail strike since the PF failed to keep thrust at idle and establish the proper pitch attitude during the bounce.
Contributing to this accident were :
- the inadequate training program dealing with the recovery form the bounce;
- lack of pre-landing preparation due to a failure to conduct an approach briefing on pitch attitude;
- the PF’s failure to properly allocate his attention due to his delegation of flight control to the pilot monitoring (PM) who failed to meet flight control requirements;
- the PM’s inadequate advice and monitoring due to the PF’s failure to make standard callouts;
- the disconnection of the autothrust and a failure to manually control thrust and speed; and
- a failure to execute a go-around when stabilized approach criteria are not met.
Regarding this accident, the ARAIB addresses four safety recommendations to Asiana Airlines and two safety recommendations to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT).